none adj : not any; "thou shalt have none other gods before me"
1 a canonical hour that is the ninth hour of the day counting from sunrise
2 a service in the Roman Catholic Church formerly read or chanted at 3 PM (the ninth hour counting from sunrise) but now somewhat earlier adv : not at all or in no way; "seemed none too pleased with his dinner"; "shirt looked none the worse for having been slept in"; "none too prosperous"; "the passage is none too clear"
Usage notesAlthough uncountable nouns require none to be conjugated with a singular verb, e.g., None of the team plays well., the pronoun can be either singular or plural in most other cases, e.g., Fifty people applied for the position, but none were accepted., and None was qualified.
However, where the given or implied context is clearly singular or plural, then a matching verb makes better sense:
- None of these men is my father.
- None of those options is the best one.
- None of these people are my parents.
- None of those options is the best one.
not any person; no one, nobody
- Albanian: asnjë, askush
- Chinese: 没有人 (méiyǒu rén)
- Dutch: niemand, niet een
- Finnish: ei kukaan
- French: personne
- German: niemand
- Hungarian: egyik sem, senki
- Interlingua: necuno, nemo
- Italian: nessuno , nessuna
- Japanese: 誰も...ない (だれも...ない, daremo...nai)
- Korean: 아무도...않다 (amudo...anta)
- Portuguese: ninguém
- Russian: никто (niktó)
- Scots: nane
- Spanish: nadie, ninguno
- Swedish: ingen , inte någon
- Albanian: asfare, aspak
- Chinese: 没有 (méiyǒu)
- Dutch: geen, niet een
- Finnish: ei mikään
- French: aucun , aucune
- German: keine
- Hungarian: egyik sem, semmi
- Interlingua: necun, nulle
- Italian: nessuno , nessuna , niente
- Japanese: どれにも...ない (dorenimo...nai)
- Korean: 아무것도...아니다 (amugeotdo...anida)
- Portuguese: nenhum , nenhuma
- Russian: никакой (nikakój)
- Scots: nane
- Spanish: ninguno
- Swedish: ingen, inte någon, inget, inte något
Nothing is a concept that describes the lack or absence of anything at all. Colloquially, the concept is often used to indicate the lack of anything relevant or significant, or to describe a particularly unimpressive thing, event, or object. It is contrasted with something and everything. There is also the concept in Eastern philosophy which is called 'nothingness' It is characterized by an egoless state of being, in which one can see the true relation of one's own small part in the cosmos.
Language and logic
Grammatically, the word "nothing" is an indefinite pronoun, which means that it refers to something. This can lead to confusion, "Nothing" is a concept, concepts are things, so the concept of "Nothing" is a thing. This fallacy is neatly demonstrated by the old joke, if nothing is worse than the Devil, and nothing is greater than God, then the Devil must be greater than God:
Devil > (nothing), (nothing) > God
Devil > (nothing) > God
Devil > God
The simplest meaning is: no thing. So if "Nothing" is said to be in a particular place, have a particular quality, then it is meant that "no thing" is there, or has this or that quality. The word "naught" also has this same meaning.
Clauses can often be restated to avoid the appearance that "nothing" posseses an attribute: "There is nothing in the basement" can be restated as "There is not one thing in the basement". "Nothing is missing" can be restated as "everything is present". Conversely, many fallacious conclusions follow from treating "nothing" as a noun.
Modern logic made it possible to articulate these points coherently as intended, and many philosophers hold that the word "nothing" does not function as a noun: there is not any object it refers to. There are still various opposing views, though: that, for example, our understanding of the world rests essentially on noticing absences and lacks as well as presences, and that "nothing" and related words serve to indicate these.
The concept of 'nothing' has been studied throughout history by philosophers and theologians; many have found that careful consideration of the notion can easily lead to the logical fallacy of reification. (If one does not believe that nothing is no thing.) However, many of the existentialist and postmodern philosophers and writers would argue that Nothing is actually the lack or absence of something, rather than of anything.
The understanding of 'nothing' varies widely between cultures, especially between Western and Eastern cultures and philosophical traditions. For instance, Shunyata (emptiness), unlike "nothingness", is considered a state of mind in some forms of Buddhism (see Nirvana, mu, and Bodhi. See also soku hi in Kyoto school). Achieving 'nothing' as a state of mind in this tradition allows someone to be totally 'focused' (in the Western sense of the word) on a thought or activity at a level of intensity they would not be able to achieve if they were 'consciously' thinking. The classic example of this is an archer drawing a bow, attempting to erase their mind as a way to better focus on the shot. Existentialism and Martin Heidegger have brought these two understandings closer together.
In mathematics, nothing does not have a technical meaning. It could be said that a set contains "nothing" if and only if it is the empty set, in which case its cardinality (or size) is zero. In other words, the word "nothing" is an informal term for an empty set. However, since two minus two is also called nothing, it could also refer to the number zero.
In physics, the word nothing is not used in any technical sense. A region of space is called a vacuum if it does not contain any matter. But it can contain physical fields. In fact, it is practically impossible to construct a region of space which contains no matter or fields, since gravity cannot be blocked and all objects at a non-zero temperature radiate electromagnetically. However, supposing such a region existed, it would still not be "nothing", since it has properties and a measurable existence as part of the quantum-mechanical vacuum.
In computing, "Nothing" (VB.Net), or "null" (Java, C#, others), can be a keyword used to represent an unassigned variable, or a pointer that does not point to any particular memory address, or a reference that does not refer to an extant object. Similarly, Null is used in SQL as a symbolic representation of the absence of data. This meta-data usage of "null" is different from the unprintable ASCII and unicode null character, which has a numerical value of zero — although it is different from the ASCII character for zero ("0"). The ASCII blank character (" ") is not the same as an empty string (""), which is itself sometimes confused with the null pointer in languages such as C. Most forms of assembly language have a no-operation (nop) instruction (often with a numerical value of zero) — that is, a command to do nothing, which can prove useful for blanking out areas of problem code.
- Empty set
- Ex nihilo
- False vacuum
- Negative theology
- Nothing comes from nothing
- Vacuous truth
- The Book of Nothing, John D Barrow
- Being and Nothingness, Jean-Paul Sartre
- The Nothing That Is, Robert Kaplan
- In Search of a Cyclops, Fredrick Schermer
- Zero, Charles Seife
- The Hole in the Universe K. C. Kole
- Church Dogmatics III/3, pp. 389-368, Karl Barth
- Signifying Nothing: The Semiotics of Zero, Brian Rotman
- Speech - Something About nothing, http://www.southperth.wa.gov.au/media_releases/docs/2007/July/MR%20Speaking%20with%20Conf.pdf
none in Arabic: العدم
none in Czech: Absence
none in German: Nichts
none in Spanish: Nada
none in Esperanto: Nenio
none in French: Néant
none in Italian: Nulla
none in Latin: Nihil
none in Dutch: Het Niets
none in Norwegian: Ingenting
none in Polish: Niebyt
none in Portuguese: Nada
none in Kölsch: Nüüß (wie jaanix)
none in Russian: Ничто
none in Serbian: Ништа
none in Swedish: Ingenting
none in Yiddish: גארנישט
none in Chinese: 無